Metadata, Recording Instruments
There are three basic kinds of metadata:
- Bibliographic metadata, which describes the document and therefore is also referred to as descriptive metadata
- Structural metadata, which displays the document structure like a table of contents
- Administrative metadata, which provides information on usage rights, for example
- Technical metadata, which contains the technical parameters of a digital copy and provides information on the file type, file size, resolution etc.
For the practical realisation of a digitization project, descriptive and structural metadata that enables the document to be used practically in the first place are especially of paramount importance.
Practical example – structural metadata E-Periodica
Bibliographical and structural metadata is recorded for journal projects by E-Periodica (external link).
The document structure contains elements (e.g. journal, volume) and corresponding sub-elements (e.g. journal volume, issue, index, appendix and volume front matter), as well as attributes for these elements (author and title of the article). The precise application of the elements, sub-elements and corresponding attributes is stipulated in indexing rules created specifically for each journal based on the rules of formal cataloguing.
Content-related structuring takes place based on an XML editor, which is contained in the modular structure of the Agora workflow software. In structuring the content, the page number of the printed number is assigned to each digital copy.
Example of a document structure.
Interfaces for Metadata
Metadata can be exchanged between systems, provided that the data complies with international standards.
For this purpose, the platform should provide its data in Dublin Core format (external link) and use OAI-PMH (OAI-Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (external link)). OAI-PMH also supports XML-based metadata formats. According to the German Research Foundation (external link), metadata should also be available in METS.
Interfaces for metadata – practice E-Periodica
E-Periodica has an OAI data-provider function. The metadata can be obtained via the OAI-PMH interface right down to article level.
An openURL interface enables publishing houses and companies to submit requests with filter options. Articles in PDF format can be accessed directly.
Recording Digitization Projects
The indexing of digitization projects improves their traceability on the one hand and prevents a document from being digitized repeatedly on the other. Projects and contents can also be registered on central, nationwide indexes, e.g.:
- Digicoord (external link)
- MICHAEL-Portal (external link)
- Zentrales Verzeichnis digitalisierter Drucke (ZVDD) (external link)
- Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek (external link)
Practical example – records E-Periodica
The journals at E-Periodica are recorded in different sources:
- Digicoord (as soon as the digitization of a journal is being planned)
- ETH-Bibliothek's Knowledgen Portal
- NEBIS (external link)
- swissbib (external link)
- EZB – Electronic Journals Library (external link)
- ZDB Zeitschriftendatenbank (external link)
- Links and referrals to websites of the publishers and companies involved